Bone Mass and Ossein Hydroxyapatite In 1982, an important calcium supplementation study was concluded and reported by the Dept. of Medicine and Radiology, Royal Free Hospital in London, England. Fifty-three women with reduced calcium absorption and accelerated bone loss were separated into three groups and studied for over 14 months. At the conclusion of the study, only the women that received 1,000 mg of calcium from ossein hydroxyapatite (OHC) along with vitamin D showed significant support for bone-health.* OHC produces more prolonged calcium balance than soluble calcium salts. It also allows the bone osteoblast cells to be more receptive to its components and to build bone tissue. Furthermore, OHC provides both the organic and inorganic constituents found in human bone: the hydroxyapatite microcrystals consist of calcium, phosphorous, oxygen, and hydrogen; the trace minerals zinc, strontium, silicon and iron; and proteins, amino acids and aminoglycans.* Bone Health Bone consists of calcium and phosphorous crystals embedded in a framework of interlocking protein fibers. The protein fibers are made primarily of collagen. The mineral crystals give bone hardness, strength, and rigidity. Collagen fibers impart their quality of flexibility. Hydroxyapatite composes 67 percent of the weight of bone, and the collagenous fibers make up the remaining 33 percent.* The average adult has 1,000 - 1,200 grams of calcium in the body. Bones are the body's largest calcium storehouse and will release calcium into the bloodstream in order to ensure correct blood levels of calcium. Thus, blood calcium levels can be normal while bone loss can be considerable. Between 2 - 4 percent of a person's skeleton is remodeled every year. This means that calcium and other minerals leave the bone in a process called resorption and then must be "remodeled" or replaced. Whether due to poor nutrition or reduced hormone levels with the onset of aging, the loss of calcium and other minerals from the bone creates tiny holes that make bones weak and brittle, particularly if collagen is being lost. It has been estimated that post-menopausal women lose 0.7 percent to 2 percent of their bone per year while men lose 0.5 percent-0.7 percent. Between 45 and 75 years of age, women lose 30 percent of their skeletal structure and men lose 15 percent. Calcium Plus It starts with the finest source of calcium available: New Zealand or Australian bovine bone hydroxyapatite from chemical-free, range-grazed calves less than two years old (bones from veal calves are never used). Skeletal health, however, requires more than calcium. Scientific evidence conclusively demonstrates the need for other nutrients like vitamin D, vitamin K, potassium, magnesium, boron, and trace minerals such as zinc, copper, and manganese.* Who Needs to Supplement Calcium? Research has indicated that 85 percent of women over the age of 20 and at least 50 percent of men from age 35 consume less than the RDI for calcium. Caffeine, alcohol, sugar, high protein diets and soda (particularly sodas that are high in phosphorous) can deplete calcium. In addition, calcium absorption has long been thought to be stomach-acid dependent, but both stomach acid production and calcium absorption decline with age. Bone-Up Clinical Trial The results of a clinical trial published in the Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine (DiSilvestro RA et al. J Nutr Environ Med. 2007; 16(1):26-32) found that exercise and supplementation of calcium, vitamin D3 and other micronutrients from Bone-Up significantly improved bone health in young adult women.* In an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled study of 24 female students ages 18 to 24, supplementation with Bone-Up (not placebo) was found to produce statistically significant decreases in markers of bone degradation, while increasing levels of plasma bone specific alkaline phosphatase (an indicator of bone synthesis), plasma 2,5-OH-vitamin D (an indicator of vitamin D nutritional status) and plasma parathyroid hormone.* Health Claim: In conjunction with regular, weight-bearing exercise and a healthy diet, calcium helps teen and young adult women build bone mass and maintain bone health, and may reduce their risk of osteoporosis later in life.* Daily calcium intake above 2,000 mg is not likely to provide additional benefit. Adequate calcium intake is also linked to reduced osteoporosis by slowing bone loss in older men and women.* About Jarrow Formulas Jarrow Formulas' complete line of over 350 nutritional products includes vitamins, minerals, probiotics, standardized herbal concentrates, amino acids, enzymes and enteral nutrition products. Customers can be assured of purity, value and potency when choosing these products. What's in the Box Jarrow Formulas Bone-Up Three Per Day, 240 Capsules.